A Level Economics Synoptic Essay Guide: Executive Pay Caps

okay welcome back we’re going to take a look at another question of the topical issue executive pay caps and think about some other possible micro and macro effects of introducing sort of a maximum pay for senior executives in nuclear companies this is highly topical some investment funds and pension funds are now in favor of tighter reforms or tighter controls of executive pay so what installs one of Britain’s leading highest-paid business people and even though the pressures from history shareholders to rein in his pain and the issue of exactly expanded and stretched as far as education here is a vote at the HCL and will come first a teacher conference to curb the pay of so-called fat cap Academy chief executives so this is clearly a highly topical issue here’s our question evaluates the micro and macro effects of a policy at capstan level of excessive pay well first of all we have to define what we mean by pay I suppose in collective pain total refers to the overall enumeration of the overall pay that flows to executives working for businesses CEOs chief analyst et cetera those earnings will include the basic salary but also perhaps bonuses and other rewards such as shell persons the level of exactly pay has become a big issue in the UK and other countries particular in the States the median CEO pay in the UK let’s the middle and middle Lang king of Pei 2015 was four million pounds a year that’s over thousand pounds an hour and median pay for footsie 100 zero is that’s for leading 100 companies by market capitalization he’s over one hundred and forty times after the national average pay in the UK the labour party ahead of the election proposing a twenty to one limit on the gap between the lowest in hired pace workers for companies that are given government contracts so this question is it a good opportunity to analyze and evaluate some of the effects that might come from like a statutory limit or cap on executive pay so in the essay in the 25 Markey looking to build up to four analysis points four key separate ka points evaluate each when you can and use diagrams of you if you have an opportunity and then come to a final reason and conclusion our focus is to build two micro points first and door two macro points so here’s my first in my grade point a cap on executive pay might lead to a brain during effect as top executives leave the labor market in search of higher paying other countries or focusing on some labor supply affects the micro impact bit of analysis then if Awards CA are limited then eclectus may decide to take jobs or companies in other nations this will create a scarcity of talented leaders and might lead to a loss of dynamic efficiency in the long run well then you evaluate the point challenged and criticized appoint a counter-argument is that’s a nice ability first used by their counter-argument is a compressor folks instead more on nurturing upcoming talent in their own businesses as well as just seeking to outbid others for top talent so instead of paying their CEOs enormous sums spend more time and energy and resources nurturing their talent within businesses this is the argument that lock star CEOs are largely a myth and that most innovation most innovation of the business comes from within the business rather than from the top a second my career point could be that high executive pay is an example of the labor market failure always good to bring some market failure to the discussion partly because we have excreting of pay award by shareholders so some printable asian problems can be brought into the discussion and also huge managerial power and businesses many ceos have you know they sit on the numeration committees and there and they can set their own pay and substance and some circumstances bill the analysis capping executive pay will help to bring more equity into the labor market more fairness if you like and might improve productivity the open here is that there’s a big gap between top and bottom pay within that can harm performance can harm productivity by building resentment well the counter I want the critique the evaluation point is that high rewards or executives are needed an incentive for people to work hard and build careers and the other oven is the pay of CEOs can be linked more closely to the long term performance of the business so linkings here pay for the output to corporate profitability market share for example another metrics including research and development innovation performance in other words you can link the pay of CEOs to actual performance more strongly so this micro section was thinking about the labor market and thinking about market failure to my career points macro side where you’re going to trying to build arguments so one Mackley from an effective capping pay might be to reduce foreign investment in the UK because firms find the UK perhaps less attractive to do business and the government runs a high executive pay is a price worth paying or having some of the more successful transnational corporations based in the UK but investing here creating jobs in the UK and then ultimately contributing to the exports of goods and services so the other ones that are macula performance is better for having multinational corporations based in the UK producing here even if that means the senior executives are paid vast amounts counter argument evaluation point is that foreign investment depends on many factors not just taxes on the income of executives and actually these days many multinational corporations are particularly aware of the wider stakeholder effects of a big pay gap for example people are relatively low paid living organizations that may suffer health problems and stress and things and often people with lower wages at the bottom of the pay scale and businesses they take more time off work with ultimately damages productivity and they often have to resort to the expensive debt to fund our consumer spending so they’re challenging about challenging the idea that cap is going to limit investment into the UK second macro point is that argument that the world is in the exactly pay cap is just funding ground offense studies have found that persistently high income inequality can damage economic growth so this is a case for cap and then drawing some businesses several businesses John Lewis successfully used share illicit schemes that further workforce to spread the profits more widely wider dispersion of profit particularly to people with a high propensity to consume sustains more consumption in the economy and therefore sustains more aggregate to bond so there is good economic growth down a pay cap counter-arguments evaluation point a lot depends on where a pay cap might be set so if we go back thirty years the average pay mcl is about forty five times the median wage so we went back to forty five times and where it is now and in 44 times actually enforcing the cap would be really difficult all kinds of incentives for people to try and avoid the cap tax advisers would find ways around it so you can make a case of saying a pay cap might be almost impossible to enforce and certainly quite costly to do if if tried so trying to build some micro and some macrocytic effects here and evaluate each in two very important to come to a final reason comment my argument would be that executive pay has certainly gone up it’s the average footsie 100 boss is not necessarily hens and thirty times more productive than their workers so if pay reflects marginal revenue productivity exactly pay is probably too high and always super high pay justified by enormous differences in corporate profits however top earners including CEO is pay a very high percentage of the total income tax that comes into the government so if in for sap a cap might actually reduce total tax revenues and make make the government worse off I think another question such as an existing pay cap a maximum pay policy it’s quite important in the evaluations somewhere the answer to talk about all motives alternatives always create good evaluation asses so for example instead of just capping pay perhaps we resort to increasing the top rate of income tax top modulated income tax on CEO pay our bonuses we think try and improve transparency by introducing legislation for example to to require companies to publish their pay ratios when you should have paid top to the bottom or top to the median wage the other aspect of course is to link government spending lots of contracts for building motorways for building hospitals or what have you contacting health services maybe only award government spending contracts to businesses that have signed up to some form of equitable pay limit for their senior x-axis that might be another alternative but alternatives do really help the evaluation on these 25 mark questions so though a topical issue lots to write about I’m sure you can find some labor market diagrams or maybe some aggregate demand supply diagrams to to build into your answer to get some really good marks on this question

APA Style 6th Ed.: Title Page and Running Head — NEW VERSION IN DESCRIPTION

hi everyone the purpose of this video is to show you how to set up a title page and then the rest of your document using APA style to make sure that everything is in the correct format before we get started one thing that’s really helpful is to have this formatting key selected and what this does is it shows the format symbols that are generally hitting so this is the paragraph symbol every time I make a new paragraph shows up the spaces show up as dots and then tabs show up as arrows or indents is another word for tabs so this is really useful because APA format is very very precise so you want to make sure that all of your formatting is done precisely as well and being able to visually see each space will help with that now the first thing we want to do is make sure that all the each page is going to be set up correctly so what we want to do is make sure that we have everything at double everything should be double spaced so two line spaces the margins should be one inch margins all around I know sometimes the default will be to have one and a quarter inch on the left and right but we want one inch all around and then the font as well should be some standard font generally Times New Roman and size twelve so that’ll be common across your entire paper now to set up the title page first we’re going to make the title our name and our institution so we can hit return a few times you want to center or ourselves and then make a title below the title write your name and then your affiliation now a good title should be no more than ten or twelve words it should be descriptive enough where it’ll give the reader a broad sense of what the paper is going to be discussing I shouldn’t be super long should be only three words so you want somewhere in between now the next thing we’re going to set up is the running head and the running header is what’s going to appear throughout the entire paper so now to do that you can double click up here the other way to do that is if you go into insert and we can insert a header up here but before we do that we’re going to insert the page number so page number top of the page all the way to the right once we’ve done that we can work with the running header so running head colon space and then this is going to be the first few words of your paper in all capital letters and generally this shouldn’t be more than 50 characters but just the first few words is fine now you can hit the tab button and it should move your running head over here if it doesn’t go all the way to the left what you can do is if you see this little small triangle up here you can move that and that changes the indentation we want this all the way to the left and once you’ve done this this is the first part so right here this is a complete title page now what we’re going to do next is format the rest of the document so hit return a couple more times at the bottom and what you have to do next is use a section break so you’re going to go into page layout it breaks under section breaks you’re going to hit the next page now what this does is you got the section break created new section starts on a new page now to change the header for the rest of the paper what we need to do is get rid of this running head part and so we just want the title for the rest of the paper but now if we do this it’s going to show up up here too which isn’t good because we want it to say running head here so I’ll undo that and the way that this will work is you can see here when I’m in the header if you go into this design tab over here this button will automatically be selected called link to previous click that button to unlink it from the previous section and now you can get rid of the words running head just have the title and now you can see that the header on the first page in the second page are going to be different so the title page this is formatted correctly and now this is formatted correctly too so we got rid of the words running head now the next thing I’m going to show you is how to use section headers to organize your paper and so this is an example of a paper that I’ve written before in APA format so you can see that the the setup the title page is basically exactly the same as what we just did and now when you scroll to the second page again we got rid of thirds running head and so we just have the title on the page number now the first part of any paper is going to be the introduction we don’t need to see any heading for the for the for the introduction just you can just go right into it start writing but as the paper goes on it helps to kind of see here there’s no real divisions of sections so if you’re scanning through you’re probably not sure what the readers talking about here and so one thing that helps is using these section headings and it directs the readers attention to the heading first of all that also informs the reader hey this is what the next few paragraphs are going to be talking about so in the APA format there’s five different levels of heading I’m just going to show you the first three because those are the most common commonly used the ones that you’ll most likely use too so this part right here is an example of a level one heading and level one headings divide major sections so the first part of this paper was introductory stuff overview of the experiment now the second part is going to focus on methodology and it’s very clear from the title of the heading right method of experiment one so this is now a new major section everything that’s coming after this is going to focus on the method participants here is an example of a level two heading and you can see here that this is flush left so think of this as indication of a subsection now so level one headings divide major sections level two headings will divide major sections into subsections now for both of these for level 1 and level 2 headings it’s going to be normal sized font you can see there’s no extra spaces between the lines it will be bold and every important word will be capitalized so you can see method and experiment are capitalized here this participants if it had other words after it those words would also be capitalized — so now you can see here there’s a level 2 heading participants and this section now you know it’s going to be focusing on who the participants in this experiment will be keep scrolling down you can see here’s another level 2 heading conditions so now you know that the next two paragraphs will get at what the conditions are in this experiment and here you see now an example of a level 3 heading for level 3 heading it’s a little bit different you’re going to start a new line hit tab once to indent it write the heading bold it end it with a period and then one space and on the same line you can now start writing and so now you know that this level 3 heading with because it’s here that this paragraph this section is going to focus on extra games scroll down this next section is going to focus on exercise next one stationery videogames and as you can can see here with level 3 headings only the first word is going to be capitalized the other words are not capitalized unless they’re proper nouns and so this level 3 heading once this section comes to an end we go back to a level 2 heading measures and so now there’s more level 3 headings so it is you can see really organizes a paper very well and it makes it very easy for the reader to know what you’re going to be writing about now again back to another level 2 heading here you know this whole section has to do with the procedures and now we go back to a level 1 heading and so now this signals that you’re going to be transitioning to a new major section so this previous section focused on the methodology this next one is going to focus on the implications and the the conclusions of this first experiment so that is it for APA formatting how to make a title page how to set up everything in the correct format and then how to use section headings

At the HOTEL ! Elsa & Anna toddlers watch TV — Playing — Vacation Adventure

[Music] he’s jumping on the bed a little even though you can see a palm tree over there yeah cute goods to the beach just right now Bonnie like right now we’re taking this moment first we have to sila settle in with our luggages okay yeah all right let me cook my quiet snore well my hands are stuck so let’s take a look around the girls first oh look at this kitchen and they even they even put some food in some pots and pans for us yeah it looks so comfy yeah such a big TV screen whoa that painting is so amazing look it up it’s like an underwater adventure there relax Anya it’s just the painting I think I’m never gonna look at that painting ever ever again never in my whole life oh please all Yoho Jilly’s old fun all right let’s go to the bathroom and then our bedroom okay all right here’s the bathroom and whoa it’s so neat Katoch stick the window yeah and see over there that’s the ocean that’s where we’re gonna go up here nice miles whoa and look anything has a rubber rubber duckies so we can place it in the bathtub yeah rubber rubber duckie you’re speaking of bathtub look how pretty the bathtub is I didn’t notice it it does look really nice mm-hmm [Music] there’s some stuff for their hair so yellow cool and when I take a bubble bath I can see this nice view what a nice bathroom all right let’s go see our bedrooms now okay let’s go let’s go this way saw it online right yeah Oh beautiful people it has a rainbow door it was even a 410 throw for sale yeah I can see it’s right over there yeah hey it’s substance and look our view looks nice too I can see the ocean [Music] nice thinking like nights there oh when it’s nice really hot this light so it can light up the room yay we have a big closet here oh that’s a big it even includes a bath towel so that’s now I could put all my clothes there yet okay I was just resting come on is this really much fun to just sit and jump here I call the pink what I call the blue and you all saw some nice pink flowers here oh it’s so pretty with the lake in the pathway yeah and the beautiful palm trees and we also have a lamp in a drawer so we can keep all our jewelry and stuff not a cute nightstand well have a go is about t enough does it feel comfortable it’s not bouncy enough mommy so are you gonna have a good night’s sleep tonight here of course mommy’s so bouncy and so poufy alright while we get the luggages out before we go to the beach do you want to watch TV well of course we want to watch TV but before that one family bond liking Joffrey mama called the doctor and the doctor said no more monkeys jumping on the bed might call the doctor if you get hurt okay well go watch TV but can we jump just for one minute okay one minute I’ll go start packing the luggage and now five four so now it’s four monkeys okay four little monkeys jumping on the bed one fell off and bumped his head mama called the doctor and the doctor said no more monkeys jumping on the bed now it’s three monkeys but you don’t mind these jumping on the bed one fell off and bumped his head mama called the doctor and the doctor said no more monkeys jumping on the bed pillows again the wrong pillow yeah well I hope this [Music] you look at spilt milk traveling’s are so funny what are you watching girls we’re watching shot nice well I’m happy to tell you that dinner’s almost ready so you can keep watching for about 5 minutes ok ok let’s see what else there [Music] I don’t want to watch myself when I touch that hot barbecue I want to see it so we can learn to never touch anything hot again now keep watching [Music] [Music] [Music] [Applause] we should never touch anything hot again of course now I don’t want to watch this anymore I think I I’ve learned my lesson I have an idea come over here it’s pretty cool here’s another one worth doing well on this putting sticker so we can jump on them see I have a whole sheet of stickers which one do you want to pick on how about pig cuz that’s my favorite color there put the pretty pink hat face hooray and now get another one this time I’m gonna choose yellow coming through a little blue take it off and stick there my little happy face and my young go happy face goes right beside LCS blue one well I’m ready with this orange one I’m gonna go get it they are and the last bigger oh right Lavanya now we have a big pass oh and it kind of looks like a snake yeah a big colorful snake so where should we start from how about from that end okay one two three four five jump on the blue jump on the pink jump on the orange jump on the blue it’s a long snake one two three four five six seven eight nine ten it’s so much fun counting a lot right yeah eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seven 18:19 what my manners ready book what is this what it’s pretty awesome right oh no it’s not awesome at all don’t you realize what you did you put stickers on the hotel room floor we can just take them off and we just wanted to hit a fun right I don’t think so it’s gonna be sticky it’s gonna be so hard to get off girls why did you do this well we were bored and our toys are are all in our luggages so we decided to put our to put the stickers over here and jump on that seat look I can’t get it off anymore it’s too sticky I I have to I don’t know what to do I need to get some sort of tool to scratch it off well we still think guys that it’s a good idea right Oh girls please please you don’t get to eat dinner until you take all of them off right now I’m sorry mommy yeah we’re sore okay I will help too because I’m really hungry and I really don’t have time for this yeah that’s right let’s start taking them off okay one let’s put them in a pile to get this sticker off see told you hmm I got this tool see if this helps with that look I did it good job sweetie I’m great I keep going stuck all right let’s hurry on in my tummy is hurting it’s kind of fun doing this because they always stick together yeah but now it’s sad that we all have to throw them in the garbage cuz they’re not sticky anymore come on girls eat fast so we can go to bed and wake up early for the beach tomorrow okay mommy [Music] but you did two mistakes today what is this look at all this milk I’m sorry mom too many silly things today you put stickers and I drop this milk yeah that’s right now we have to clean it or well the other thing that was LCS fault because she came up with that I see I don’t care what happened then I care about what’s happening now now we have to clean all this milk well it’s not only my fault yeah you’re right I’m sorry LC Apple will you still help me clean yes of course I will like wipe wipe over here there’s lots of milk over here a better way there mommy the dinner was good but now we’re sleepy yeah I understand I feel sleepy — all right well crawl into bed don’t you want to jump on the bed first no I’m too sleepy you’ll be so low yeah I’m sleepy too ah let’s see get nice and snug good night on you it made members sleep type we’re going to the beach tomorrow I think I can’t sleep even though it’s very sleeping all right good night I’ll see ya good night mommy good night see you in the morning and if you wake up earlier than us just come to our room to wake us up okay okay good night I’ll see ya dinner was good and what a day well this travel and I feel a bit sleepy and all the kids who did silly things today but at least me get to rest and now write Elsa yeah alright and this shoe might feet are sore a bit from those high heels all right 10 now ah this bed feels so good no wait I want to scooch it over here don’t worry you have plenty of space sauna I know Elsa did you fall asleep already oh she did fall asleep well I understand because it was a very long day today I better go to sleep hmm visit our channel and subscribe for more videos [Music]